The Mongols saw themselves as destined by heaven to rule the world. In 1206, Chinggis Khan undertook his conquest "By the Power of Eternal Heaven." In 1260 Qubilai Khan adopted a Buddhist teaching which transcended world order given by the amoral vault of heaven with an order predicated upon morality and compassion. In 1578 a certain Mongol lord accepted the teaching of Gelugpa Buddhism and forsook heaven as the ultimate source of his legitimacy. In 1635 the descendants of Chinggis Khan resigned themselves to a heaven that had ceased to recognize them as destined to rule but instead ordained the Qing dynasty of the Jurchen Manchus. And...
Sunday, April 8, 2018